By Simon Hall
Renowned uprisings in Poland and Hungary shake Moscow's carry on its jap ecu empire. around the American South, and within the Union of South Africa, black humans danger their livelihoods, and their lives, within the fight to dismantle institutionalised white supremacy and safe firstclass citizenship. France and Britain, already struggling with anti-colonial insurgencies in Algeria and Cyprus, now face the humiliation of Suez. in the meantime, in Cuba, Fidel Castro and his band of rebels take to the Sierra Maestra to plan the overthrow of a dictator...
1956 used to be some of the most striking years of the 20 th century. All around the globe, traditional humans spoke out, stuffed the streets and town squares, and took up fingers in an try to win their freedom.
In reaction to those remarkable demanding situations to their authority, these in strength fought again, in a determined bid to shore up their place. It used to be an epic contest, and one that made 1956 - like 1789 and 1848 - a yr that modified our international.
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More generally, there may be good reasons to guarantee something to people with a threat advantage, but that does not show they have a right to it. Such examples are a special case of something that should not be too surprising: that attempts to reduce moral concepts to a theory of the good are unpersuasive. But does Mill actually need to try? He could take a weaker line. He could argue that the utilitarian theory of the good is the appropriate `controller', in his word, of all our principles, ideals and ends.
For Mill, the content of self-realisation was given by a certain liberal ideal of character. An important source for it is the aesthetic and ethical vision of classical Greek (speci®cally Athenian) life that was presented by German thinkers and artists at the turn of the eighteenth century. It was an ideal of balanced development of all faculties ± rational self-governance on the one hand and development and education of the feelings, `aesthetic education', on the other: `a Greek ideal of self-development, which the Platonic and Christian ideal of self-government blends with, but does not supersede' (XVIII: 266; L 3: 8).
So the claim that happiness is the sole human end, put more carefully, is this: `Whatever is desired otherwise than as a means to some end beyond itself, and ultimately to happiness, is desired as itself a part of happiness, and is not desired for itself until has become so' (X: 237; U 4: 8). Pluralists about human ends 19 Ð The Good for Human Beings Ð deny that. They hold that there are desirable ends other than happiness. So if they follow Mill's method they must deny the thesis that whatever we desire, we desire under the idea of it as pleasant.
1956, The World in Revolt by Simon Hall