By E. Anderson
Drawing on 1000s of interviews with 15-22 12 months previous directly and homosexual male athletes in either the us and the uk, this e-book explores how jocks have redefined heterosexuality, and not worry being idea homosexual for behaviors that restricted males of the former iteration.
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Extra resources for 21st Century Jocks: Sporting Men and Contemporary Heterosexuality
Accordingly, in some aspects, 28 Part I: 20th Century Jocks heterosexual relationships were more egalitarian before industrialization. Factory work, however, shifted revenue generation from inside the home to outside. Mom’s physical labor no longer directly benefited the family as it once did, and much of women’s labor therefore became unpaid and unseen. Conversely, men’s working spaces were cold, dangerous, and hard. Men moved rocks, welded iron, swung pick axes, and operated steam giants. These environments necessitated that men be tough and unemotional.
It was these photos (and Ibson’s astute analysis) that heavily influenced my thinking about the role of homophobia in producing gendered behaviors and men’s masculinities (Anderson 2009). The photographs he collected suggested that the gradual awareness of homosexuality as a static identity (not just an abhorrent behavior) resulted in an equal growth in cultural homophobia. This was displayed in his photographs which, when organized by passing decades, clearly suggest that as American culture grew increasingly aware of homosexuality, men began to pry intimacy away from fraternal bonding.
In other words, do athletes have higher self-esteem because they score goals, or is this a statistical reflection of the lowering of non-athletes’ self-esteem in response to being subordinated by athletes who are culturally and institutionally glorified? Conversely, when many studies purport to examine the socionegative attributes of teamsport participation (Miller et al. 2005), they often examine variables that lend themselves to quantifiable analysis, like disciplinary referrals. In doing so, they fail to examine the more important socio-negative variables, like the volitional and unintentional damage inflicted upon those who do not fit the athletic mold, or the emotional and physical damage that sport often brings to the body or brain when used as a weapon in search of temporary glory (all readers should Google “chronic traumatic encephalopathy”).
21st Century Jocks: Sporting Men and Contemporary Heterosexuality by E. Anderson