By George Aaron Broadwell BA MA PhD
This booklet is the main accomplished reference grammar of Choctaw, an American Indian language spoken via nearly 11 thousand humans situated basically in Mississippi and Oklahoma. in response to nineteen years of box paintings with audio system of the Mississippi and Oklahoma dialects and greater than one hundred fifty years of written Choctaw fabric, A Choctaw Reference Grammar includes the main entire description up to now of the morphology of the language in addition to a radical therapy of word constitution, observe order, case marking, and complementation.The Choctaw tribe was once divided into Oklahoma and Mississippi teams throughout the Indian removing of the 1830s. at the present time the vast majority of fluent audio system one of the Oklahoma Choctaws are greater than 40 years previous, and few little ones converse the language. even if extra young children one of the Mississippi Choctaws examine the language, the quantity is declining. simply because language is essential to retaining the Choctaws’ lifestyle and either dialects of Choctaw are endangered, cautious documentation of the grammatical constitution of the language is severely vital. Compiled through the prime scholarly specialist at the Choctaw language, George Aaron Broadwell, this quantity is either a pragmatic consultant to local audio system and an crucial instruction manual for linguists.
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Additional info for A Choctaw Reference Grammar
The majority show behavior like -ba: no glottal stop when word final, no h when followed by another subject. In this respect they are different from nominal stems. We can articulate the difference as follows: (a) Every Choctaw noun ends in a consonant. (b) Other parts of speech (in particular, determiners and complementizers) may end in vowels. at - ofiyat] dog-NM 'dog (nominative) ' (52a) /konih/ 'skunk' [konih - koni] 14. See chapter 5 for further discussion of noun phrases with -akilih. There I suggest that the final /h/ may be the tense affix.
There is a n exception for verbs of the shape VCV, however. '6 The pattern for rhythmic lengthening in nouns is similar. ] 1~111-grandfather 'my grandfather'8 Speakers vary on whether rythmic lengthening applies after I1 prefixes in nouns. For some speakers, the rule is not applicable in cases like the following: 5. As discussed below, speakers vary in whether rhythmic lengthening applies before -tok. 6. Imabi, literally 'kill to him/her/them', is an idiom meaning 'beat, defeat'. 7. Some speakers also seem to have a nasal vowel in the possessed form of ofi', which is then im&'.
Locational and possessive sentences Locational sentences are those in which the location of some noun phrase is specified. Sentences of this type do not use the copula as in English, but instead use a small class of verbs of position. ittila-h. ' (30) 'Holisso '-mat aa-&a- ' pakna ' aa-tok. ') Sentences that show possessive relationships typically use the same small class of verbs of position along with 111-agreement (dative) on the verb: 36 CHOCTAW REFERENCE GRAMMAR (31) Ho1isso'-mat am-ittcjla-h.
A Choctaw Reference Grammar by George Aaron Broadwell BA MA PhD