By Donald W. Stokes, Lillian Q. Stokes
Read Online or Download A Guide to Bird Behavior, Volume II: In the Wild and at Your Feeder (Stokes Nature Guides) PDF
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Extra resources for A Guide to Bird Behavior, Volume II: In the Wild and at Your Feeder (Stokes Nature Guides)
Nature 386, 578–584 (1997). 8. Van Keken, P. E. & Ballentine, C. J. Dynamical models of mantle volatile evolution and the role of phase transitions and temperature-dependent rheology. J. Geophys. Res. B 104, 7137–7151 (1999). 9. Kellogg, L. , Hager, B. H. & Van der Hilst, R. D. Compositional stratification in the deep mantle. Science 283, 1881–1884 (1999). 10. Becker, T. , Kellogg, J. B. & O’Connell, R. J. Thermal constraints on the survival of primitive blobs in the lower mantle. Earth Planet.
Work reported in refs 16 and 17 has highlighted the importance of identifying the source of the Ne isotopes in different mantle reservoirs, as this information provides a critical evaluation of the mechanisms proposed to incorporate volatiles into the silicate Earth and, shown here, the extent of interaction between different mantle reservoirs. To date, however, interpretation has been compromised by ubiquitous air contamination found in MORB and ocean island basalt (OIB) samples18. We show in this work that magmatic natural gases can be used to obtain an unambiguous Ne isotopic value for the convecting mantle that is consistent with an irradiated meteorite origin (Ne-B).
Other recent conceptual models include a water-rich melt layer within the mantle that preserves a volatile-rich deep reservoir while allowing whole-mantle convection12. These, and the original steady-state models, source all primitive volatiles in the convecting mantle from a deep, volatilerich reservoir. 8), and are interpreted as evidence for trapped solar neon in the mantle2. 7)13,14. com/nature Ne-B15. The mixture of these two components is found in relatively uniform proportions to give a Ne-B value of 20 Ne=22 Ne ¼ 12:5 ^ 0:04 (ref.
A Guide to Bird Behavior, Volume II: In the Wild and at Your Feeder (Stokes Nature Guides) by Donald W. Stokes, Lillian Q. Stokes