By Gungor V.C., Lambert F.C.
In modern aggressive electrical software industry, trustworthy and real-time details develop into the foremost issue for trustworthy supply of strength to the end-users, profitability of the electrical application and client pride. The operational and advertisement calls for of electrical utilities require a high-performance information communique community that helps either latest functionalities and destiny operational standards. during this recognize, due to the fact this sort of conversation community constitutes the middle of the electrical process automation functions, the layout of an economical and trustworthy community structure is important. during this paper, the possibilities and demanding situations of a hybrid community structure are mentioned for electrical procedure automation. extra in particular, web dependent digital inner most Networks, energy line communications, satellite tv for pc communications and instant communications (wireless sensor networks, WiMAX and instant mesh networks) are defined intimately. the incentive of this paper is to supply a greater realizing of the hybrid community structure which may offer heterogeneous electrical approach automation program requisites. during this regard, our goal is to give a established framework for electrical utilities who plan to make use of new conversation applied sciences for automation and for this reason, to make the decision-making method more suitable and direct.
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Additional info for A survey on communication networks for electric system automation
Morabito Abstract In this paper, we propose an optimal resource utilization scheme with end-to-end congestion control for continuous media stream transmission. This scheme can achieve minimal allocation of bandwidth for each client and maximal utilization of the client buﬀers. By adjusting the server transmission rate in response to client buﬀer occupancy, playback requirements in the client, variations in network delays and the packet loss rate, an acceptable quality-of-service (QoS) level can be maintained at the end systems.
The proposed scheme can obtain an optimal utilization of network resources such as to maximally utilize the client buﬀers and minimally allocated network bandwidth to the clients. Moreover, during the network congestion, the adaptive rate is adjusted in a way that the multimedia ﬂows can share the bandwidth fairly with the TCP ﬂows (instead of starving the TCP ﬂows) and the packet loss rate can be reduced. The simulation results show that our approach better utilizes the bandwidth and client buﬀers, supports more concurrent clients under the constraint of the limited available bandwidth, and achieves end-to-end TCP-friendly congestion control.
14. Number of packets exchanged during the second phase of the simulations expressed in percent of the total traﬃc. This is proved by the decrease in the number of change_netid packets in comparison with the total traﬃc, when the number of nodes increases. The decrease in change_netid packets conﬁrms that the system tends to uniform the NetID of the most frequently connected networks. We can note how the number of search_IP2 and goodbye packets is the same. Due to the Gradual_Merging mechanism, the nodes that switch to a network with a diﬀerent NetID at ﬁrst send a goodbye packet, then return to the state Requester and invest an Initiator to start the search_IP2 procedure.
A survey on communication networks for electric system automation by Gungor V.C., Lambert F.C.