By O. Lowenstein
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It has been shown in Mus and Clethrionomys that comparatively minor body temperature reductions from the maintained level of 38°C down to 35°C decreased the high-frequency response by 15-30 dB at 50 kHz, without significantly affecting the lowfrequency response (Brown, 1971b, 1973b). B. Sounds Produced by Rodents The investigation of ultrasound production in rodents has followed much the same pattern as that of high-frequency hearing. Following the work of Schleidt (1951, 1952) on the bank vole, Anderson (1954) showed that adult rats produce sounds of 20-30 kHz, and Zippelius and Schleidt (1956) found that young mice also produce ultrasound.
51). The response apparently declined slowly there after to reach a limit well above that of man, and often approaching HIGH-FREQUENCY HEARING IN MAMMALS 31 100 kHz. Rats were the only rodents shown to be an exception to this, as they were found by several workers (see below) to have a high-fre quency peak of sensitivity at 40 kHz in addition to the peak around 8 kHz. It has recently been shown in recordings of both CM and IC responses that, apart from rats, several myomorph rodents have high-frequency peaks of sensitivity, as well as the lower frequency peak in the 10-20 kHz range (Brown, 1970, 1971a,b, 1973a,b).
Calculation then showed that echoes from the landing platform would be received by the bat at a fixed frequency almost equal to the frequency emitted by a stationary bat. In 1970, Schnitzler showed that the same effect is produced by Chilonycteris rubiginosa. Three different observations have demonstrated that the Doppler com pensation in cf bats is not initiated by measurement of their airspeed but by actual measurement of the frequency shift of echoes, although this is at most about 3 % in practice.
Advances In Comparative Physiology Biochemistry by O. Lowenstein