By Shirley A. Hill
In the context of turning out to be range, Shirley A. Hill examines the paintings mom and dad do in elevating their youngsters. in line with interviews and survey facts, African American Children contains blacks of varied social sessions in addition to a comparative pattern of whites. It covers significant components of kid socialization: instructing values, self-discipline techniques, gender socialization, racial socialization, prolonged households -- displaying how either race and sophistication make a distinction, and emphasizing styles that problem current examine that perspectives black households as a monolithic staff.
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Extra info for African American Children: Socialization and Development in Families
L o w birth weight is the greatest single damaging factor to infant health (Christmas, 1 9 9 6 ) , as low-weight babies are more likely to die and to experience myriad other health problems. 18 AFRICAN A M E R I C A N C H I L D R E N M o s t teenage pregnancies are not planned, and teenage mothers typically have neither the e c o n o m i c resources n o r the parenting skills needed for child rearing. According to M c L a n a h a n and Sandefur ( 1 9 9 4 ) , i n c o m e accounts for more than half o f the disadvantage associated with living with a single mother, but the rest o f the disadvantage comes from other sources, such as parenting styles.
Young single mothers are especially likely to be inconsistent in their child-rearing and disciplinary strategies; they are sometimes harsh and authoritarian, and at other times overly permissive. M c L e o d and Shanahan point out that poor mothers spank their children significantly m o r e often than do n o n p o o r mothers, and greater spankings contribute to the mental health problems o f children. T h e extensive use o f physical punishment often occurs because parents do not understand the developmental stages o f their children, thus expecting behaviors that children are n o t capable o f performing, and because o f the distress and isolation o f parenting.
26 AFRICAN AMERICAN CHILDREN Caste Analysis F r o m the early 1 6 0 0 s until the abolition o f slavery in 1 8 6 5 , the majority o f Africans in the United States were forced immigrants brought t o the country for the purpose o f slavery. Slavery had been established in Virginia by 1 6 4 0 , and by the end o f the seventeenth century, 9 0 % o f Africans in the United States were enduring a form o f chattel slavery that defined t h e m as the property o f their white slave owners. Slaves were defined as less than human—as property or livestock—and were incorporated into the early e c o n o m y with little regard for their previous social or family ties.
African American Children: Socialization and Development in Families by Shirley A. Hill