By Virgil J. Vogel
The aim of this ebook, says the writer, is to teach the influence of Indian medicinal practices on white civilization. truly it achieves way more. It discusses Indian theories of affliction and techniques of fighting ailment or even is going into the query of which illnesses have been indigenous and which have been dropped at the Indian by way of the white guy. It additionally lists Indian medicinal drugs that experience received reputation within the Pharmacopeia of the U.S. and the nationwide Formulary.The impression of yank Indian therapeutic arts at the medication and therapeutic and pharmacology of the white guy was once huge. for instance, such medications as insulin and penicillin have been expected in rudimentary shape via the aborigines. Coca leaves have been used as narcotics by means of Peruvian Indians countless numbers of years prior to Carl Koller first used cocaine as an area anesthetic in 1884. All jointly, approximately one hundred seventy medications, in most cases botanical, have been contributed to the authentic compendia by means of Indians north of the Rio Grande, approximately 50 extra coming from natives of the Latin-American and Caribbean regions.Impressions and attitudes of early explorers, settlers, physicians, botanists, and others concerning Indian healing practices are mentioned via realms, with British, French, and Spanish colonies and the younger usa individually treated.Indian theories of disease—sorcery, taboo violation, spirit intrusion, soul loss, unfulfilled goals and needs, and so forth -and shamanistic practices used to strive against them are defined. equipment of treating every kind of injuries-from fractures to snakebite-and even surgical procedure are incorporated. The effect of Indian therapeutic lore upon people or household medication, in addition to at the "Indian medical professionals" and patent medicinal drugs, are mentioned. For the benefit of the reader, an index of botanical names is supplied, including a large choice of illustrations. The disproportionate consciousness that has been given to the superstitious and unscientific beneficial properties of aboriginal medication has tended to imprecise its actual contributions to American civilization.
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Some were dropped and others were added at the decennial (now quinquennial) revisions, but altogether about 220 substances used by the Indians were listed in the USP and National Formulary between 1820 and 1965. The number of herbal medicines, of which Indian drugs formed such a large part, indeed declined after 1890. Still it is significant that 41 new substances of American Indian usage became official after 1890. USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names through June, 1981, lists thirty-two substances or derivatives from substances used medicinally by American Indians.
Rounding out this decade of rediscovery was Wilton Krogman's article, "Medical Practices and Diseases of the Aboriginal American Indians" (Ciba Symposia, April, 1939). Still, the majority of the medical profession kept its distance from what was regarded as little more than bizarre superstition. Most writing in the field was done by anthropologists, ethnobotanists, folklorists, and pharmacists. My own interest in the subject was first attracted by Margaret Kreig's Green Medicine (1964), which dealt with the search for new botanical drugs.
It is here sought to bring to light something that has been ignored or forgotten, and to provide some small basis for a new appraisal of the acculturation process in America. , 1958), 4. 3Letters from an American Farmer, 218. 4 So complete, in fact, was the aboriginal knowledge of their native flora that Indian usage can be demonstrated for all but a bare half dozen, at most, of our indigenous vegetable drugs. In a surprising number of instances, moreover, the aboriginal uses of these drugs corresponded with those approved in the Dispensatory of the United States.
American Indian Medicine by Virgil J. Vogel