By Munenori Takehara, Hideo Hirohara (auth.), Yoshimitsu Hamano (eds.)
Microorganisms are able to generating a wide selection of biopolymers. Homopolymer peptides, that are made of just a unmarried kind of amino acid, are a long way much less ubiquitous. the single amino-acid homopolymers identified to happen in nature are awarded during this quantity. Poly-epsilon-L-lysine is a polycationic peptide and shows antimicrobial task opposed to a large spectrum of microorganisms. it truly is either secure and biodegradable and is as a result used as a foodstuff preservative in numerous nations. moreover, there was nice curiosity in scientific and different functions of poly-lysine and its derivatives. against this, poly-gamma-glutamic acid is an strange anionic polypeptide. it's also water soluble, biodegradable, safe to eat, non-toxic and non-immunogenic and will be chemically converted to introduce a number of medications. those gains are very beneficial for pharmaceutical and biomedical functions. Poly-glutamic acid can also be a hugely appealing as meals ingredient.
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Extra info for Amino-Acid Homopolymers Occurring in Nature
However, as they used the crude extract of an e-PL-producing microorganism, it was not possible to confirm the biosynthetic mechanism. Additionally, the chain-length diversity of e-PL products is difficult to explain with this generic model. In addition, Hamano et al. recently identified and characterized e-PL-degrading enzymes in an e-PL producer, S. albulus NBRC14147 (Hamano et al. 2006). This raised the question of whether the degrading enzymes, rather than the biosynthetic machinery, might be responsible for generating products of diverse chain length.
For this reason, Yamanaka et al. named the tandem sequences the C1-, C2-, and C3-domains, with the expectation that they would have a role in peptide bond formation (Yamanaka et al. 2008). HS 4’-PP H2N (1) A-domain COOH (1319) C1 T 616 676 TM1 TM2 638 654 C2 852 911 TM3 TM4 874 889 C3 1087 1148 TM5 TM6 1109 1126 Fig. 7 Domain architecture of Pls. The A-, T-, six TM-domains, and three tandem domains (C1-, C2-, and C3-domain) are shown schematically. The numbers on Pls are the amino-acid residue numbers 34 Y.
3 PEG-Mediated Transformation of S. albulus CR1 Protoplast with pLAE001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Conjugal Transfer of the oriT-Vector, pLAE003, from E. coli to S. albulus CR1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Construction of a Genetically Engineered Strain of S. albulus CR1 for e-PL Overproduction . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Amino-Acid Homopolymers Occurring in Nature by Munenori Takehara, Hideo Hirohara (auth.), Yoshimitsu Hamano (eds.)