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ISBN-10: 0471395676

ISBN-13: 9780471395676

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When light strikes a transparent surface at an angle that exceeds the critical angle essentially all of the light is reflected, this effect is called total internal reflection (TIR). However, a small fraction of light “leaks” into the media; this is the evanescent wave. The intensity of the evanescent wave decreases exponentially with an e−1 length in the range of 100–500 nm. , 2004; Schwille; 2003; Starr and Thompson, 2001). TIR techniques are well-suited for studying single molecules at interfaces such as surfaces and cellular membranes (Schwille, 2003; Starr and Thompson, 2001).

Such information is not available from in vitro measurements. In fact, in vitro measurements are misleading because the pristine environment excludes interactions with surfaces and other cellular components that are important aspects of intracellular chemistry. A good starting point would be the encapsulation of selective intracellular species into lipid vesicles to mimic cells. 3. Sample Preparation and Detection We expect a tremendous improvement in the handling of ultrasmall samples. One can detect single molecules, but it requires nanograms of sample to get a few molecules to the probe volume.

Statistics of single-molecule measurements: Applications in flow-cytometry sizing of DNA fragments. Cytometry B Clin Cytom 60A:41–52. Ferris, MM, Yoshida, TM, Marrone, BL, and Keller, RA (2005). Fingerprinting of single viral genomes. Anal Biochem 337:278–288. Foquet, M, Korlach, J, Zipfel, W, Webb, WW, and Craighead, HG (2002). DNA fragment sizing by JWDD033-01 JWDD033-XU February 3, 2007 15:8 Char Count= 0 REFERENCES 25 single molecule detection in submicrometer-sized closed fluidic channels.

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An Annual publication of satisfactory methods for the preparation of organic chemicals by Organic Syntheses

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