By L. Mázor
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Extra info for Analytical Chemistry of Organic Halogen Compounds
R E A C T I O N S S U I T A B L E D E T E C T I O N 1. Detection O F F O R H A L I D E of chloride S P E C I F I C I O N S ions The chloride ion can be detected most simply and rather sensitively by precipitating its silver salt, but this reaction is not very selective (Ks (AgCl) = 10 2 2 = 1 . 5 x l 0 ~ m o l e l " ) . The precipitate is white, and thus can be distinguished from the yellow silver iodide, but the very pale yellow colour of silver bromide makes visual distinction impossible. Furthermore, silver cyanide and silver thiocyanate are also white.
Non-substituted aromatic halogen compounds are only slightly reactive in nucleophilic substitution reactions. F o r example, the reaction of chlorobenzene with sodium methylate takes place only very slowly, with the formation of anisole. When the preparation of phenol is desired, chlorobenzene should be made to react with sodium hydroxide at 300°C; the reaction with water starts only at 425°C. PROPERTIES, PREPARATION AND REACTIONS 43 The reactivity of halogen atoms is also influenced by polar groups in aromatic c o m p o u n d s ; but the effects are opposite to those observed in aliphatic halogen compounds.
This is soldered t o the small-diameter end of a glass tube attached to a town gas supply. The gas gives a microflame at the end of the copper tube and the part within 1-2 m m of the end of the tube glows red-hot. The solid substance to be tested is placed in the glass tube at point 1 (a small platinum boat can be used for this purpose) and evaporated rapidly by heating with a microburner (the gas flow is adjusted so as to obtain a flame 3-4 m m long). Catalytic decomposition takes place at the inner wall of the copper tube, giving rise to a very intense green colour in the microflame, but often of brief duration.
Analytical Chemistry of Organic Halogen Compounds by L. Mázor