By Marshall Clagett
This quantity is a part of Marshall Clagett's three-volume learn of some of the facets of technological know-how of old Egypt. quantity covers calendars, clocks, and astonomical monuments. inside of every one region of therapy there's a reasonable chronology obvious as merits a old paintings protecting 3 millenia of task. contains greater than a hundred illustrations of files and medical gadgets.
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Extra info for Ancient Egyptian Science: A Source Book. Volume Two: Calendars, Clocks, and Astronomy
Moreover. Ihis IUnltr ca/endllr annat have existed before the civil clt/endar WIlS introduced. The Origin of the Civil Calendar I have alrelldy outlined the main chancteristics of the remarkable civil calendllr of 365 dllyS (12 schematized months of 30 days each, llrranged according to four months in each of three sellsons. plus 5 epagomenlll days) invented by the ancient Egyptillns, The most difficult problem regarding this calendllr is the time and circumstance of its inauguration, We should first examine the ellrliest historical evidence of its existence.
The calendar does not indicate when every month began but lists only six dates for every year. those falling in the second and fourth months of each season. It also indicates the years of 13 months ("great" years) according to the following scheme, 1st, 3d, 6th. 9th, 12th, 14th. 17th, 20th, and 23d year of each cycle. Table 3 [equivalent to my Fig. & taken from Neugebauer and Volten] gives the complete cycle as stated in the papyrus. Anyone using this calendar would begin a lunar month. without regard for actual observation, on II Ibt I (which for A,D.
It W6S not corrected. D. 190 and still fits exactly into the scheme. Obviously. then. there was no provision in the calendar itself which required that periodically it be adjusted. Furthermore. c. of lin IIlready existing cycle, instituted. let us say 500 years earlier. t 2. so that its correction would result in Jlbt I. This is exceedingly unlikely.... The question may still be legitimately asked. however. c. and that prior to that time there is no evidence that IIny other method than observation was used to begin the month.
Ancient Egyptian Science: A Source Book. Volume Two: Calendars, Clocks, and Astronomy by Marshall Clagett